Barker thought that the identification of the previous person was made by chance, and once made, the memories of informants changed to support this identification.
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Most cases with great disparities between lives are in India and Sri Lanka, where according to Hindu and Buddhist reincarnation beliefs, a previous life in better circumstances would imply a karmic demotion into the present life. It seems unlikely that children would reap much benefit from such a claim, much less that their parents would encourage it. Nonetheless, Stevenson regularly considered cryptomnesia as a possibility and looked for links, not at first obvious, between the present and previous families.
Sometimes he discovered that there had been contacts, even when the two families denied knowing each other, and certainly were not well acquainted.
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Stevenson doubted that they could have. It was not so with other memory disturbances, such as paramnesia , a term often used loosely to indicate any distortion and inaccuracy in memory. Stevenson considered paramnesia to be of great potential importance. Stevenson showed that memory distortions may occur both with the case subjects and with the adult witnesses to what a child has said.
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Adult witnesses may have faulty memories as well, which is one reason that Stevenson interviewed as many first-hand witnesses to a case he could find and went back to them repeatedly over periods of years in order to check for consistency. He reported and evaluated all inconsistencies carefully. Although he acknowledged the possibility of social construction in some cases, he judged this an inadequate explanation for his stronger cases. A study comparing cases with and without such written records found that more statements were recorded, yet the percentage of correct statements was equally high, in cases with prior written records as in cases without them.
The early Christian theologian Tertullian was the first person to raise one of the most common philosophical objections to reincarnation, that of reconciling it with population growth. It is manifest, Tertullian said, that the dead are formed from the living, but it does not follow therefrom that the living are formed from the dead; if they were, there should be a constant number of people on earth, but then why was the population increasing?
New human souls might enter the system in several different ways, including being promoted up to human form from nonhuman animals. Tertullian also asked, Why do people die at different stages of life, yet always return as infants? Would not those who died in old age pick up where they left off in their next lives? In any event, case studies provide numerous examples of children behaving as if they were the adults they recalled having been.
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Tertullian set up a Straw Man version of reincarnation, to which he addressed his questions. The same is true of Edwards. As Almeder observes, Edwards attacks a conception of reincarnation that does not match any particular belief system, but appears to be constructed solely for the purpose of ridicule. He finds logical problems with both and thinks that he has thereby disposed of the possibility of reincarnation. However, neither karma nor subtle bodies are required by reincarnation, as evidenced by the many belief systems that make do with neither. A minimalist concept of reincarnation that does not involve these ideas, moreover, receives good support from the case data.
Her beliefs shape the way she treats her child and are conveyed to him, so that he grows up imagining he has lived before. Satwant Pasricha examined the possibility of parental guidance in two studies, finding support for it in neither. Parental guidance is assumed by many critics to be an important factor in the cases but it is most likely to come into play when the purported previous person is well-known, as in two cases exposed by Stevenson and his colleagues. In one of these, a Turkish Alevi child was identified by his parents as the reincarnation of John F.
Kennedy on the basis of a dream and a birthmark. The boy was named Kenedi and grew up hearing that he was Kennedy reborn. In another case, an Indian child was told by his parents that he was Mahatma Gandhi reborn. Recognizing this, Stevenson considered the possibility that the children might be using extra-sensory perception ESP to learn about deceased persons. He could not see how ESP alone could account for the behavioural correspondences in many cases and so considered ESP plus personation, the internalization and mobilization of ESP impressions necessary to impersonate the previous person.
Even this was not enough to explain the psychological continuity children felt with the previous persons or their use of the first person in narrating their memories. In many cases, the information the children produced did not reside in the mind of any single living person and so would have had to have been assembled from multiple sources. There was also the question of motivation—why did the child zero in psychically on this particular deceased person rather than another? Another problem with the ESP or psi explanation is that when and how children express their memories more closely resembles memory than psi.
These difficulties have not kept some parapsychologically-oriented critics from favoring a psi explanation of the cases. Chari thought that psi might become involved in paramnesia as well as less distorted memories. Unusually extensive or complex psi is called super-psi , because it is beyond anything that has been reported in spontaneous cases or demonstrated in laboratory experiments.
Stephen Braude , especially, has been keen on arguing for the possibility of a complex super-psi as a way of explaining reincarnation case phenomena. Braude believes that super-psi deployed in altered states of consciousness could explain not only how children are accessing information about deceased persons but also how they are acquiring language and other skills.
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Maternal impression is the idea that the thoughts and feelings of a pregnant woman can affect the development of the child in her womb. This explanation works best when the mother was aware of a wound or other scar on the previous person and was shocked by it. One is that past-life memories are typically autobiographical memories about a specific previous person, not the sort of instinctive actions that may be encoded in the genome of a species, presumably for the survival advantages they confer.
Moreover, in many cases, there are no genetic connections between the children and the persons whose life they remember. Also, genetic memory could not account for memories of deaths, which are very common, nor could it account for memories of persons who died without progeny. Whately Carington was a psychical researcher who studied mediums and wrote theoretical works on telepathy and postmortem survival. Psychon systems survived the death of the body and might connect with other psychon systems through processes of affinity, rather as in psychometry.
Carington used his theory to explain various sorts of psychic and survival phenomena, including mind-to-mind communication, mediumship, and apparitions, but he wrote before Stevenson had begun his research with reincarnation cases and so did not attempt to relate it to past-life memory. In fact, he said, the cases provided plenty of evidence of a more robust survival of personality, behaviours, and emotions, for which he had been unprepared when he began his research.
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Apparently Stevenson was persuaded for philosophical reasons that he had to provide a subtle body to support consciousness between lives. James Matlock has suggested an alternative conception of how reincarnation works.
When the incoming mind does displace another mind, and remains in control of the body thereafter, Matlock calls this replacement reincarnation. Replacement reincarnation may occur either before or after birth. If the possession is not permanent but transient or temporary, as in mediumistic or spirit possession or the thirteen-week possession of Lurancy Vennum , Matlock calls this possession. The difference between whether a given case is one of possession or reincarnation is a matter of whether the possession is temporary or long-term. Stevenson marshalled a great deal of evidence that a mind could directly influence its body, which it should be able to do without the mediation of a psychophore, Matlock points out, and if there is no psychophore, one does not have to explain what happens to it when the mind joins the body after conception.
Announcing Dreams and Related Experiences. Behavioural Memories in Reincarnation Cases.
On Reincarnation and Parallel and Overlapping Lifetimes "Other Lives, Other Times"
Buried Treasure in Reincarnation Cases. Children Who Remember a Previous Life.
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Experimental Birthmarks and Birth Defects. Bowman, C. New York: Bantam Books.
New York: HarperCollins. Haraldsson, E. Kelly, E. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Pasricha, S.